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CARDINAL AFFLICTIONS 2013-2015 and HEALTH

Medical Astrology and the Cardinal Cross
By Lynn Koiner

The alignment of Uranus and Pluto in Cardinals signs is having an impact on global situations with crises in every country. However, Uranus-Pluto combined with Mars in Libra and Jupiter in Cancer is also having an impact upon the health of many people with planets in Cardinal signs in their natal charts.

In my Medical Astrology courses, I have developed a totally original approach to medical astrology. The fundamental premise is that the root of all major diseases in the life will be found in the Quadruplicities – Cardinal-Fixed-Mutable.

The Cardinal signs will cause problems associated with the endocrine system, specially the adrenal gland. Cardinal signs respond to all crises. They can respond by trying to organize a crises, mediate a crises, address the crises head on or simply go into an avoidance mode and internalize the crises in the life.
Other hormones are affected by the Cardinal signs. For example, the Cardinal sign of Libra rules the kidneys. In addition to removing wastes, the kidneys release three important hormones:
• Erythropoietin, or EPO, which stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells
• Renin, which regulates blood pressure
• Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, which helps maintain calcium for bones and for normal chemical balance in the body
• Oxytocin – the bonding hormone that allows us to feel empathy and become socialized
When we produce too much Cortisol, we can develop osteoporosis! The Cardinal signs are also connected with the Four Lobes of the brain.

• Aries/Fire – Frontal Lobe (Pre-Frontal Cortex is ruled by Saturn)
• Cancer/Water – Occipital Lobe
• Libra/Air – Parietal Lobe
• Capricorn/Earth – Temporal Lobe

As many planets are transiting the Cardinals signs, I am receiving numerous telephone calls from people who are experiencing health crises. If they have Cardinal signs in their horoscopes, before they tell me what is wrong, I give them a list of symptoms. They are shocked that I have identified their problem but feel reassured that they do not need strong anti-psychotic drugs, as many doctors will prescribe for these symptoms. I tell them to see a good gynecologist who tests for all hormones or an endocrinologist.

This is the list of Cardinal Crisis health symptoms due to Adrenal stress and Cortisol Imbalance:

• Shakiness, higher heart rate and a pounding heart when you move
• Panic Attacks
• Inability to handle stress and difficulty focusing
• Emotional Sensitivity — even becoming paranoid at times
• Episodes of low blood sugar (you feel better when you eat – eating stopped some of my shakiness)
• Severe headaches – as soon as my Cortisol levels spike, I get a terrible headache and aspirin does not help
• Chronic Fatigue and constant hungries
• Breathing more to get more oxygen
• Dark circles under the eyes (I never had this)
• Persistent Allergies
• IBS/diarrhea symptoms
• Critical insomnia – Cortisol will keep you awake
• Depression (I never realize how depressed I was until I started taking these supplements)
• Insomnia (I never realized that I had serious sleeping problems until I took DHEA and slept soundly for the first time in years)
• Calcium Loss

In the spring of 2013, my hairdresser told me not to come back until I saw a doctor. My hair was brittle, falling out and I just did not look healthy. The doctor who I selected was a holistic gynecologist. I feel that she saved my life.

First, she prescribed Armour Thyroid in a small dose as my thyroid was low-normal. Even at low normal, my body temperature was 97.4 degrees, I lost my eyebrow hairs and I had chronic fatigue – all symptoms of low-functioning thyroid. I took Armour Thyroid several years earlier when I developed Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from the Epstein-Barr Virus.

Because I was taking liquid Melatonin under my tongue, the Melatonin was building up in my system by attaching to my salivary gland tissues. My body was constantly battling the sleep mode that Melatonin created and my adrenals were exhausted. Dr. Berger said that it would take about 6 months to get the Melatonin out of my system but I could take it in a small-dose pill form after this time. She also prescribed the bio-identical hormones from a local compounding pharmacy. This corrected the hair loss.

Dr. Berger used kinesiology or muscle testing to see what other supplement I would need. I tested strongly for an under-the-tongue form of DHEA with Pregnenolone produced by Energetix. When I took this combination, I felt fantastic. My heart rate was calm and I felt enthusiastic about life.

However, I am finding, with the Cardinal Transits, my body over-reacts to stress. Even with minor stress, the Cortisol levels spike, the heart pounds, and the migraine headaches return – until I go to sleep at night.

When I lectured on medical astrology a few years ago in Chicago, several nurses attended my lecture and they gave me wonderful advice. They told me about a supplement called Seriphos which calms the adrenals. Seriphos actually helps the body produce Serotonin, a calming hormone. It is supported with Dairy Peptides so I take both at night before I go to sleep.

There are many supplements and adaptogens that support the adrenals. This is what I teach in my classes. I also teach another theory – that all major diseases that we develop in later life are connected with an unexpressed childhood trauma. We all experience traumas as children but, when they are unexpressed or repressed, they can resurface as a disease. I teach a very simple technique for determining when these traumas occurred.

I teach using a Profile Method – students submit the chart for a specific disease and I show them how to create a Disease Profile for organizing their ideas about the health issue. I also approach each disease in terms of a psychological pattern. So, many diseases are connected to a psychological pattern and a childhood trauma. If one addresses the psychological issues, a healing can more easily occur.

In Course II, I teach Progression and Transits contributing to medical problems. I continue with the Profiles. In Course I & II, I actually write up the Profiles myself. In Courses III-IV-V-VI, we research the diseases associated with the four elements and the four lobes of the brain. At this point, the student needs to start writing up the Profiles, always with my help.

Bio:
Lynn teaches the Medical Track for IAA. To learn more about her courses being offered please visit the Professional Module – Medical Track.

Lynn will offer her BDTB3 lecture in the Research Track on Friday, 14 November at 2:00 p.m. EST. She will be discussing: The 12th House

  1. BREE Says:

    Hi Lynn,

    I have the Cross affecting my Cardinal Mars with Pluto conjunction and researching adrenal fatigue is very enlightening. I’ve been having most of the symptoms. What you say about cardinal signs handling crises is spot on for me (Also having Cardinal Sun and Moon). I’ve always been slightly hypoglycemic and fight constant fatigue. I internalize stress as you mention which usually comes out as ulcers, headaches, and a number of other ailments.

    Perhaps a productive use of this transit would be to work on treating my body better so that I can handle stress more effectively. Like you I’m stressed a lot more easily than usual right now so it would a good time to learn how to handle it in a healthy manner; to channel Mars energy in a way that will not be destructive to my body.

    Thank you for sharing this. I feel like you’ve pointed me in a very positive direction!

  2. Livia Says:

    Have you checked yourself for miastenia gravis? It’s an immune illness which manifests as extreme fatigue in arms, legs, dificulties when eating, speaking, double vision, blured vision…it afects the strength of muscles. Ask your neurologist if it’s possible you have it. There are tests that can be done to see if it is miastenia gravis. It is an illness difficult to detect and sometimes it is confused with thyroid problems, but a good doctor can help you.

  3. Lynn Koiner Says:

    LIVIA (5-2014): While this was not my problem, your suggestion may be very helpful to other readers. Thank you for the suggestion.

  4. kari wood Says:

    Hi Lynn:

    Forgive this being off topic but leave a reply popped up and ive been wanting to ask you about Bach essences (Clematis for Neptune tx you suggested been v.helpful) and I’d been using for a while some others. Do these need frequent off/on schedules like adrenal supplements etc or can you take ongoing without loss of effectiveness?

    Also how long do you plan on continuing to teach the classes mentioned in article?

    Best,

    Kari Wood

  5. Lynn Koiner Says:

    KARI (5-2014): You have asked a good question about supplement scheduling.

    DHEA and Armour Thyroid (taken on an empty stomach) are taken continuously.

    I take Seriphos every night as it makes me sleepy at night but not really in the day time.

    The only supplement for the Adrenals that MUST be taken in waves is raw adrenal. On the internet, you will read about adrenal crash after taking this for awhile – it stops working.
    When I lectured in Chicago a few years ago, nurses told me about taking Raw Adrenal in waves so that the body does not become accustomed to it.

    There is a free resource at Life Extension Foundation where a medical staff answers supplemental questions for free.

    But, for far, only the raw Adrenal gland needs to be taken in waves.

    COURSE I begins on May 18, Sunday, at 1pm EDT.

  6. Michael Says:

    Hi Lynn!

    Very good read. Ive been experiencing some health issues as of late – and Im planning on getting a check up. I have planets in two cardinals by birth: Moon, and Neptune. Moon at 1 Libra, and Neptune at 4 Capricorn (they also square each other.) If it helps, I am a sun sagittarius, with saturn on my natal sun – I generally have good health, but lately stress has gotten the best of me, and I feel horribly off balance. Ive had fatigue, anxiety, fears of death, exaggerated reactions to most everything, and I experience the heart pounding that you mention. I am only 27 which is why this is most bothersome. I fainted in February. I went to the hospital, and everything at Face value was ok. The found no heart, brain, or physical issues that were apparent. Though they did no blood work. My inner voice has been leading me to get blood work done to check my hormone levels, and to also make sure im not anemic, or something. My instincts are telling me that its an issue of “the blood.” Be it hormones, a disorder, etc. My asc is Gemini, and My 6th is Scorpio…Saturn has been in the same house as Venus, Mercury and Pluto for quite some time…its been a very 6th house existence.

    I will keep you posted on my findings, and thank you for writing this!

    -Michael

  7. Lynn Koiner Says:

    MICHAEL (5-2015): If you have insurance, I would consult an endocrinologist. A regular doctor may not know about the adrenal-thyroid and put you on psychological meds for anxiety — this is the last thing that you need. This has happened to friends.

    One friend is still on anxiety meds and this has affected her personality.
    Another friend when to the ER with heart racing – thinking she was having a heart attack. They gave her all kinds of drugs for the heart. Fortunately, when she called her regular doctor, she said that she was only having a Thyroid Storm from too much thyroid stimulation. She was taking Armour Thyroid and then another doctor gave her high doses of iodine to ward off radiation from Japan. It was all too much but regular doctors did not know this.

  8. Marissa Says:

    Hi Lynn,

    Thanks for this useful information. It makes total sense to me the types of issues which I’m facing currently. I had the Epstein Barr Virus last year in November and things started clearing up with the help of a homeopath. He usually gets people better in 3 months with this virus. However in April things went unpredictably wrong. I had insomnia for most of the month due to low melatonin levels. Then I completely crashed and suffered fatigue. It was a very scary experience and I thought I was losing my mind. Lots of panic attacks too. I had to take 2.5 months off from work. I went to see a Doctor who specialises in Chronic Fatigue. Blood tests revealed nothing however over 3 weeks I was given 3 intravenous vitamin C treatments to boost my system. I found a naturopath and he examined my blood under the microscope and said that there was still some active infections. When I returned to my homeopath he found that he missed checking some other infections. After that I thought things were clearing up and then I suddenly had heart palpitations 3 weeks ago. The doctor sent me for a test on my heart which showed nothing was wrong. I went back to see the homeopath over the weekend and he found yet another virus – situated in my lung and causing my heart to beat fast. He couldn’t believe it himself. I am a scorpio with saggitarius rising – but I do have a few cardinal signs in my chart (cancer, aries, capricorn). I can see that the combination of the cardinal signs plus the fact that I had the mars retrograde for 2.5 months really dished up some really scary stuff for me. Hopefully after this mercury retrograde I have some reprieve from any more “surprise” viruses.

  9. Elizabeth M. Cardarelli Says:

    Dear Lynn,

    With so many cardinal planets it is amazing I am up and functioning right now. Uranus, Sun and Mercury in Cancer, Mars and Neptune conj in Libra. South Node in Libra conj Asc 0Libra and NNode conj Des. I am on Adrenal supplementation and receiving myofascial treatments on my neck while my sacrum will not stabilize.

    My food sensitivities are through the roof, Neptune conj my Jupiter 6rth H, oppose Saturn in the 12th) but I am slowly finding things I can eat, everything made from scratch. I am still searching for the discipline to deter a family pattern of overeating. I am thin with a high metabolism, but this OE really wrecks my stomach, poor little thing. Exercise is my structured approach, and meditation.

    I have tested and the thyroid is fine, but honestly it seems like such a potent time for healing. Any suggestions would be extremely welcome. I am allowing repressed childhood trauma up but it sure is a lot of work. The full moon in Cancer on Sunday knocked my socks off, but then so much love entered the void.

    Thank you. Elizabeth Moonrose

  10. Lynn Koiner Says:

    ELIZABETH (1-2015): This Cardinal transit has been very difficult for many people. The food intolerances do not last for the rest of your life. When you body is under stress, Cortisol is high, inflammation is high and our body reacts to foods.

    If you are taking raw adrenal (Nutri-Meds Porcine is great), take this in waves – on and off in cycles. If you are taking adrenal support supplements, then you can take this all the time.

    When inflammation levels are high, some time we think that eating will help this. It does not but I have been there when I had the Epstein-Barr Virus and high inflammation levels and food intolerance. I no long have this unless I am under stress and the Cortisol level spike.

    If you have low body temperature, then the thyroid is low normal and this is not normal.

    Serotonin is mostly stored in the stomach. A lack of Serotonin can cause disgestive issues. The best source is Seriphos taken at night on an empty stomach. It help you sleep better too. I have not found 5-HTP to be helpful after about 2 days.

  11. Adrianna Says:

    Hi
    My daughter is nine years old (March 7th, 2005 1:30 pm Miami FL), ever since my mother in law died (Libra) last May 4th, 2014, my daughter started to be really anxious about death or getting sick, but I assumed it was proper of her age.
    We took her to a therapist since she started being bullied at school and getting depressed.
    Also she started having these continuos thoughts about getting sick or die, herself or anyone in my close family.
    These thougts are inabilitating her to have fun or be relaxed as a kid should be. She gets easily upset.
    The therapist wants her to go to a psychiatrist to have her medicated with SSRI, which I wonder if it causes an addiction in such a young age.
    I just want to know if this could be related as you said with the cardinals and eventually she will be more relaxed to have her therapist approach her without any medication.
    I started giving her Omega’s and about 100mg of magnesium at night to help her go to sleep more easily.

  12. Lynn Koiner Says:

    ADRIANNA (2-2015): Please – no meds! There are transiting afflictions to her Cardinal sign planets. See a good endocrinologist. If the Adrenal glands are out of whack, Seriphos (Life Extrension has this) taken at night will increase Serotonin and calm the Cortisol. It worked for me.

    This is the correct article for you to read as you can see some of the symptoms. So, see a GOOD and recommended Endocrinologist. Let me know how ti goes.

    A client called last year as he son had Chronic Fatigue, depression and all of the Cardinal symptoms. I send her to my doctor – actually she is a New Age gynecologist who accurately treated my Cardinal symptoms – and she accurately diagnosed his problem as well. She got him off all of those horrible medications that the psychiatrists gave him.

    I forgot to mention EFT, a tapping technique that you can view online. It is called Emotional Freedom Technique and it is great for overcoming fears. I have more information on one of my Common Cures lists.

  13. charlene Says:

    Hi Lynn,
    I have an issue happening that has been very mysterious. I have an elevated hemi-diaphragm. In other words, my right diaphragm is only functioning partially. All medical testing confirms that the diaphragm is not functioning properly, but no “cause” according to western medicine. I am not able to breathe properly and at times my lungs also feel restricted. I have a 23 degree virgo rising (DOB 8/18/69) with pluto on my ascendant. Currently Saturn is transiting my 3rd house. When my sister experienced Saturn in her 3rd house she lost the ability to speak for almost 2 years. Then she worked with a kinesiologist and after 1 session she was able to speak again. Any thoughts??

  14. Jan Says:

    Cancer born 7/6/1960 @ 6:06 pm. 2014 was a dangerous year, my mental health suffering greatly. Dr. noticed changes in sodium levels (low). Finally got an appointment with endocrinologist this year and tested for cortisol production affecting adrenals. Tests came back normal. No further action taken. As Pluto is exactly conjunct my Saturn which opposes my natal Sun. I’ve made a conscious decision to remain alone (except for my emotional support dog) and out of all intimate personal relationships. It seems a good choice. My emotional balance is more stable even though I had to make the hard decision to keep my sister and her daughter out of my life until/unless they get sober. Alcoholism runs rampant in my life and I just don’t want to die drunk.

  15. Sofia Says:

    Hi Lynn for the 1st time i’m in the US I’m going to have a very comprehensive check up I all ready decided on it when I was young I had severe acne(super high testosterone ) a birth control pill fixed my problem but not with out problems lot of the things you described in this article I have it to my sun,venus,moon is squared by Pluto and all 4 planet’s are in cardinal signs and in fixed houses I decided to have 2 surgery only in 1 year one of them is none ivasive just to be on the safe side keep you updated and thank you for all your work.

  16. Lynn Koiner Says:

    IMPORTANT MESSAGE (7-2015);

    Surgery for acne??! Please say it is not so! Google High Cortisol and Acne and you will see that it is indeed related to the adrenals.
    I copied this from a website.

    Cortisol Blockers in the treatment of acne……..

    I’ve been doing a lot of research on cortisol and came across some interesting information regarding its role in acne. A couple of Japanese studies(not available) online that really made a clear connection to cortisol levels, not just elevated by stress, but diet and exercise as well.
    What these Japanese scientists surmised is that exercise-induced cortisol release can directly promote acne, moreso than the “dude your testosterone levels have just gone up” response that seems to be common here.

    What I have not found, and would like to find out about, is the effect that cortisol blockers, something such as 7-OH, would have, if any, on improving the condition of the skin. I would love to hear about people’s experiences with these products and any major differences they might have noticed in relation to acne and other skin-related conditions.

    I know Perricone has talked about cortisol leading to acne in the past, and how drinking coffee(regular or decaf) can lead to major elevations in cortisol levels. This is perhaps one explanation why cutting out coffee for many leads to an alleviation of their acne symptoms. I’ve observed this personally after working in a dermatology clinic and thus would be interested in any other studies that someone else might have uncovered.
    ——————————————————-

    It is actually caused by something called Adrenaline Dominance – it is a cycle of stress that upsets our hormones.

    ADRENALINE DOMINANCE: First, it seems that I attribute everything to Adrenaline Dominance. This is more common now with Uranus and Pluto in Cardinal signs, triggering stress reactions to personal and global events.

    HOW ADRENALINE DOMINANCE WORKS:
    • Adrenaline/Epinephrine is released when the body feels stressed or is
    confronted with some type of thread.
    • Adrenaline increases the sugar level in the body (it helps make the brain
    feel alert)
    • Excess Adrenaline can produce anger and even rage (think of road rage)
    • Blood flows to the brain and muscles (what we need in a time of
    stress/crisis)
    • Blood flow is reduced in non-essential organs such as the gastrointestinal
    tract and the kidneys

    If the brain is not receiving sufficient fuel (glycogens from carbohydrates such as with the low carb diets), adrenaline is triggered to stimulate the production of glycogens. We feel sleepy without glycogens – coffee triggers adrenaline release and we wake up!
    There is a close relationship between adrenaline and insulin. If we do not exercise sufficiently or burn up the glycogens when they are released, the pancreas/Islets of Langerhans releases insulin.

    “Under the conditions for which adrenaline was originally designed, all or most of the elevated blood sugar would have been burned up during the fight-or-flight response. Insulin was only needed to take care of small levels of residue sugar.”

    “However, nowadays, because of continuous low-level stress, ongoing excess adrenaline, and not enough activity to use up the sugar, much of the sugar is not burned up. So, insulin moves this extra sugar into fat cells, where it is turned into fat (even if you do not eat a lot).” Even worse, the increase of adrenaline makes the individual feel stressed – or more stressed.

    The end result of this process is an increase in Cortisol. The first effect from the Cortisol is an increase in sugar – so the body can have energy to physically fight the dragons. If there are no dragons and only stress, the sugars are driven into the fat cells of the body, which promotes hypoglycemia, which in turn “prompts the body to release adrenaline and cortisol to raise the sugar level again in a cascade of hormones.”

    As indicated, Cortisol leads to osteoporosis, it impacts the heart (rhythm), it increases coronary artery calcification…among other effects listed in this Profile.

    The adrenals and adrenal stress eventually impacts the thyroid gland. “It causes T4 (thyroxin) to convert into T3, a form of thyroid that the body cannot use. The resulting hypothyroid state is not detectable if only the
    T4 level and not the T3 level is tested. Excess Cortisol can promote thyroid resistance at thyroid receptor sites.”

    Eventually, Cortisol impacts the pituitary gland, where it suppresses the production of thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormones. Treatment must regulate adrenaline-cortisol-insulin, the 3 major hormones associated with stress.

    HOW TO TREAT ADRENALINE DOMINANCE:

    First, Dr. Platt feels that the root of AD is a brain hungry for fuel.

    “This is best achieved by following an appropriate meal plan (low glycemic foods), bio-identical hormones (yes, even men need progesterone) and nutritional supplementation needed to support the brain function.” The positive results can occur within 24 hours!

    The brain can be low in sugar for two reasons: 1) the over-production of insulin, which causes the blood sugar to drop;

    2) the individual is not eating correctly.
    Low glycemic carbohydrates are digested more slowly and release sugar more steadily. Most low glycemic foods are green vegetables, which are the perfect food for the brain. People who live on adrenaline usually skip breakfast, except for coffee, and they do not eat regular meals. Adrenaline takes away the appetite.

    The only hormone that helps to control adrenaline/cortisol is Progesterone.

    This should be applied in the form of a bio-identical transdermal cream. It possibly blocks insulin at its receptor sites. Progesterone always the individual to maintain the sedentary lifestyle of working in an office without the negative side effects. In women, Progesterone blocks the negative effects of excess estrogen – cramps, migraine headaches, fibroids, POSD, asthma, gall bladder disease and even certain cancers. MEN NEED PROGESTERONE TOO!

    1. Low GI Foods (55 or less)
    • 100% stone-ground whole wheat or pumpernickel bread.
    • Oatmeal (rolled or steel-cut), oat bran, muesli.
    • Pasta, converted rice, barley, bulgar.
    • Sweet potato, corn, yam, lima/butter beans, peas, legumes and lentils.
    • Most fruits, non-starchy vegetables and carrots.

    Low glycemic foods are those that cause but minor changes in blood sugar levels. Such foods can be grouped into one of two broad classes, according to carbohydrate content:

    1. “No carb” foods that consist entirely or mainly of proteins, fats, and/or water. These mainly include:

    • Meats, poultry, fish
    • Eggs, tofu
    • Cheese
    • Nuts and seeds
    • Many vegetables
    • Oils and Fats

    2. “Good carb” foods that – because of the biochemical properties of the component carbohydrates – result in relatively small increases in blood sugarwhen eaten in “normal” or “average” portion sizes.

    These “good carb” foods are the focus of this website, and should constitute your “go to” carbohydrate sources.

    So, this is the first step in treating AD, preparing low glycemic index meals.

    ? Second and most important, apply bio-identical Progesterone onto the soft part of your skin before each meal. Dr. Platt offers Natural Progesterone Cream (5%) for $42 per bottle or $117 for 3 bottles.
    www.plattwellness.com or 760-836-3232 (California time)

    ? Adrenal Supportive Supplements – Dr. Platt recommends the following…

    • Serotonin is the neurotransmitter that helps us to be less anxious and less depressed. 5HTP requires that it be taken with B6, Folic Acid, Magnesium and vitamin C. It is easier to take Seriphos before bedtime of when you feel anxious (on an empty stomach though)

    • Taking any one of the following will be a good alternative to 5-HTP –

    1. Ashwagandha 200 mgs daily
    2. Holy Basil 500 mgs twice a day
    3. Passion Flower 100 mgs per day
    4. L-Theanine 400 mgs per day (converts to GABA, that cannot be absorbed
    when taken directly)
    5. Use Stevia and not other artificial sweeteners

  17. Denise Says:

    Lynn – I started using Seriphos last year and it was really helpful for insomnia, awakening at 3am, and shakiness. Recently I have not found it as effective; I read some internet reviews and found that others shared my experience and attributed the decreased effectiveness to a reformulation of the product. While Uranus has moved on and is no longer conjunct my Sun, Pluto is still tightly square my Sun, so I had planned on keeping the same routine – Seriphos, tryptophan, and melatonin just before bedtime – for another 5 months. I am not using liquid melatonin. Any thoughts?

  18. Lynn Koiner Says:

    DENISE (7-2016); I have been writing about this on my Lynn Koiner Medical Sharing Facebook. Interplexus changed the formula completely and it no longer works. I am desperately looking for a substitute.

    There is a doctor online selling ENERPHOS but it is NOT Phosphorylated Serine at all and a waste of money. I will keep looking. Seriphos was an old formula and the company decided to IMPROVE it. I have been complaining. You must write to the company and complain too.

  19. Denise Says:

    Thanks Lynn. Will do. I also expect Interplexus is getting the message from the posts on Amazon, some of which are pretty strongly worded, and the increase in “1” ratings.

 

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